21 مقاله برتر رشته انسانی و هنر

در این قسمت چکیده 21 مقاله برتر چاپ شده در ژورنال ساینس دایرکت (Science Direct)  ارائه شده است. این مقاله ها که در نیمه دوم سال 2015 در ژورنال ساینس دایرکت چاپ شده اند، به عنوان مقاله های برتر این ژورنال برگزیده شده اند. برای دریافت نسخه کامل مقاله می توانید با جستجوی عنوان مقاله موردنظر در سایت ساینس دایرکت، ضمن داشتن اکانت دسترسی، مقاله را از سایت دانلود کنید. 

سعی ما در اینجا بر این بود که با ترجمه چکیده و ترجمه کلمات کلیدی مقاله، کمکی در انتخاب مقاله موردنظر به محققین رشته هنر و انسانی کرده باشیم.

چکیده مقاله های برتز نیمه دوم سال 2015 در ژورنال ساینس دایرکت:


 عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: Is there a causal link from phonological awareness to success in learning to read

عنوان فارسی مقاله: آیا نوعی ارتباط سببی بین دانش آواشناسی و کسب مهارت خواندن وجود دارد؟

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به فارسی: دانش آوا شناسی، مهارت خواندن، دانش واجی، کسب مهارت خواندن، دیسلکسیا (خوانش پریشی)

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به انگلیسی: Phonological awareness; Learning to read; Phonemic awareness; Reading acquisition; Dyslexia

چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:  

Abstract

In this review, we re-assess the evidence that phonological awareness represents a skill specific to spoken language that precedes and directly influences the process of reading acquisition. Longitudinal and experimental training studies are examined in detail, as these are considered most appropriate for exploring a causal hypothesis of this nature. A particular focus of our analysis is the degree to which studies to date have controlled for existing literacy skills in their participants and the influence that these skills might have on performance on phonological awareness tasks. We conclude that no study has provided unequivocal evidence that there is a causal link from competence in phonological awareness to success in reading and spelling acquisition. However, we believe that such a study is possible and outline some ideas for its design and implementation. 

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: ?Does the autistic child have a “theory of mind”

عنوان فارسی مقاله: آیا کودکان اوتیسمی "نظریه ذهن" دارند؟

چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:  

Abstract

We use a new model of metarepresentational development to predict a cognitive deficit which could explain a crucial component of the social impairment in childhood autism. One of the manifestations of a basic metarepresentational capacity is a ‘theory of mind’. We have reason to believe that autistic children lack such a ‘theory’. If this were so, then they would be unable to impute beliefs to others and to predict their behaviour. This hypothesis was tested using Wimmer and Perner's puppet play paradigm. Normal children and those with Down's syndrome were used as controls for a group of autistic children. Even though the mental age of the autistic children was higher than that of the controls, they alone failed to impute beliefs to others. Thus the dysfunction we have postulated and demonstrated is independent of mental retardation and specific to autism.

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: ?What happens to ESL students’ writing after three years of study at an English medium university

عنوان فارسی مقاله: بعد از سه سال تحصیل در دانشکده ای با مهارت متوسط انگلیسی چه تغییری درنگارش دانشجویان ESL ایجاد می شود؟ 

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به فارسی: نگارش آکادمیک، تقویت نگارش، دانش آموزان بین المللی، نگارش به زبان دوم

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به انگلیسی: Academic writing; Writing development; International students; Second language writing

چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:  

Abstract

The number of international students coming to study in Australian universities has increased exponentially in the past decade, mirroring trends in other English speaking countries. For the majority of these students, English is an additional language. The motivation for studying in an English medium university is presumably not only to gain a degree but also to improve English language proficiency. Studying in an English-medium university provides these students with a rich immersion environment. However, research on whether these students’ English proficiency does improve has to date been scarce, and has generally examined students’ gains after a relatively short duration (e.g., 12 weeks). The current study examined 31 undergraduate students’ L2 (ESL) writing proficiency following a three-year degree study in an Australian university. The study used a test–retest design which required participants to write a 30-minute argumentative essay on the same topic at the commencement and at the end of their degree program. A range of measures was used to assess writing, including global and discourse measures. All participants were also interviewed about their writing experiences at the university. The study found that students’ writing improved after three years of study but only in terms of fluency; changes in accuracy, grammatical and lexical complexity, as well as global scores of writing fell short of significance. The students reported in the interviews that they were not required to do much writing in their degree studies and when they did, their lecturers almost exclusively commented on the content of their writing. We discuss our findings in relation to the students’ L2 proficiency, the nature of the test, and the nature of their immersion experience.

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: Fast mapping, slow learning: Disambiguation of novel word–object mappings in relation to vocabulary learning at 18, 24, and 30 months

 عنوان فارسی مقاله: نگاشت سریع، یادگیری کند: ابهام زدایی از نگاشت کلمات – موضوعات در یادگیری لغت طی 18، 24 و 30 ماه

 کلمات کلیدی مقاله به فارسی:  نگاشت سریع، ابهام زدایی، ویژگی انحصاری متقابل، حافظه، یادگیری کلمات

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به انگلیسی: Fast mapping; Disambiguation; Mutual exclusivity; Retention; Word learning

چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:  

Abstract

When hearing a novel name, children tend to select a novel object rather than a familiar one, a bias known as disambiguation. Using online processing measures with 18-, 24-, and 30-month-olds, we investigate how the development of this bias relates to word learning. Children’s proportion of looking time to a novel object after hearing a novel name related to their success in retention of the novel word, and also to their vocabulary size. However, skill in disambiguation and retention of novel words developed gradually: 18-month-olds did not show a reliable preference for the novel object after labeling; 24-month-olds reliably looked at a novel object on Disambiguation trials but showed no evidence of retention; and 30-month-olds succeeded on Disambiguation trials and showed only fragile evidence of retention. We conclude that the ability to find the referent of a novel word in ambiguous contexts is a skill that improves from 18 to 30 months of age. Word learning is characterized as an incremental process that is related to – but not dependent on – the emergence of disambiguation biases.

 


 عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: Enduring themes and silences in media portrayals of violence against women

عنوان فارسی مقاله: حفظ تم موضوع و آرامش در به تصویر کشیدن خشونت علیه زنان

چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:  

Synopsis

We investigate the power of the media to reinforce or transform public opinion about violence against women. We ask if media portrayals of the issue are essentially conservative messages communicated through a veneer of ‘objectivity’ using simplistic narratives. Our literature review shows that the media frames family violence, sexual assault and sexual harassment using a recurrent theme of mutuality of responsibility for the violence. This contradicts the feminist understanding of these harms as gendered and reflective of male dominance, sexism and misogyny. Such narratives could impede and delay feminist aims of protecting women from violence and improving access to justice. While the internet and social media enable activists and others to challenge myths and stereotypes, they also create new forums for the perpetuation of violence against women. Continuing engagement with the media is necessary to ensure community understanding of violence against women and the harm that media portrayals may cause.

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:  But one must not legalize the mentioned sin': Phenomenological vs. dynamical treatments of rods and clocks in Einstein’ thought

عنوان فارسی مقاله: "اما گناه مرتکب شده نباید قانونی شود ": پدیدارشناسی در مقابل جوش و خروش ساعت و قدرت در ذهن انیشتین

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به فارسی:  آلبرت انیشتین، نظریه نسبیت، ساعت و قدرت، هرمن ویل، ولف گنگ پاولی، کل گرایی تاییدی

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به انگلیسی: Albert Einstein; Relativity theory; Rods and clocks; Hermann Weyl; Wolfgang Pauli; Confirmational holism

 چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:

Abstract

This paper offers a historical overview of Einstein׳s vacillating attitude towards ‘phenomenological’ and ‘dynamical’ treatments of rods and clocks in relativity theory. In Einstein׳s view, a realistic microscopic model of rods and clocks was needed to account for the very existence of measuring devices of identical construction that always measure the same unit of time and the same unit of length. It will be shown that the empirical meaningfulness of both relativity theories depends on what, following Max Born, one might call the ‘principle of the physical identity of the units of measure’. In an attempt to justify the validity of such a principle, Einstein was forced by different interlocutors, in particular Hermann Weyl and Wolfgang Pauli, to deal with the genuine epistemological, rather than the physical question of whether a theory should be required to describe the material devices needed for its own verification.

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:  Arabidopsis, the botanical Drosophila: from mouse cress to model organism

عنوان فارسی مقاله: آرابیدوپسیس، مگس سرکه گیاهی: از رشادی موشی تا ارگانیسم نمونه

چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:

Absrtact

The small flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana is the best-studied model organism in plant biology. More resources are allocated to research on this little weed than to the study of well-known favourites such as worms, fruit flies and mice. Yet, up to the early 1980s plant biologists had every good reason to ignore Arabidopsis: neither did it seem to possess the characteristics of a good model organism, nor did it have any agricultural promise. The sudden prestige acquired by Arabidopsis research thus constitutes a remarkable historical puzzle. What made the mouse cress into the most successful model organism to date?

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:  Genre pedagogy: Language, literacy and L2 writing instruction

عنوان فارسی مقاله: آموزش ژانر: زبان، سواد و آموزش نگارش به زبان دوم

 کلمات کلیدی مقاله به فارسی:  کلمات کلیدی: انگزش، سرگرمی، نویسندگان جوان، تحقیقات عملی، متون فرهنگی اجتماعی

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به انگلیسی: Motivation; Engagement; Young writers; Action research; Socio-cultural context

 چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:

 Abstract

For teacher educators, genre-based pedagogies offer a valuable resource for assisting both pre- and in-service writing instructors to assist their students to produce effective and relevant texts. Instead of focusing on the process of composition, the content of texts, or the abstract prescriptions of disembodied grammars, genre pedagogies enable teachers to ground their courses in the texts that students will have to write in their target contexts, thereby supporting learners to participate effectively in the world outside the ESL classroom. Genre theory and research thus give teacher educators a more central role in preparing individuals to teach second language writing and to confidently advise them on the development of curriculum materials and activities for writing classes. In this paper, I will briefly introduce the principles of genre-based language instruction and sketch some broad classroom models, looking at ESP and SFL approaches. I then explore what it means to implement genre teaching in more practical terms, setting out some key ways in which teachers can plan, sequence, support, and assess learning.

 


 عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:  The use of social media in travel information search

 عنوان فارسی مقاله: استفاده از رسانه های اجتماعی در تحقیقات گردشگری

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به فارسی:  کلمات کلیدی: گردشگری هوشمند، تحقیقات گردشگری، مدل پذیرش ارزشی، تئوری آینده نگر، تئوری حسابداری ذهنی

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به انگلیسی: Social media; Smart tourism; Travel information search; Value-based adoption model; Prospect theory; Mental accounting theory

چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:

 Abstract

When faced with new technology for tourism purposes, travelers often use information searches in the Internet and, in addition, gain valuable travel information from various sources. This paper examines the travel information searches using social media as a new search behavior from a value perspective. By adopting the value-based adoption model (VAM) based on the prospect theory and mental accounting theory from the perspectives of value maximization of benefits versus sacrifices for a new technology, our findings revealed that the traveler’s perception of the value of social media is a primary determinant of the traveler’s social media usage. We test our research model using empirical data collected (n = 695) in a survey and run a structural equation modeling. These results are mediated by perceived value. Thus, the users of new social media, especially for travel information searches, are influenced by both benefits (information reliability, enjoyment) and sacrifices (complexity, perceived effort). However, only enjoyment makes an impact directly on social media usage. Thus, this paper discusses both the theoretical and practical implications of VAM in the context of social media on the subject of tourism.

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:  Exploring the potential of second/foreign language writing for language learning: The effects of task factors and learner variables

عنوان فارسی مقاله: ارزیابی استعداد نگارش به زبان دوم/زبان بیگانه برای یادگیری زبان: تاثیرفاکتورهای وظیفه و متغیرهای یادگیرنده

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به فارسی:  کلمات کلیدی: استعداد نگارش در یادگیری زبان، پیچیدگی کار، مهارت زبانی، کارایی عمل، گنجایش حافظه فعال، سنجه های CAF

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به انگلیسی: Language-learning potential of writing; Task complexity; Language proficiency; Performance on task; Working memory capacity; CAF measures

 چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:

Abstract

This investigation aimed at examining the potential of second/foreign language (L2/FL) writing for language learning through the manipulation of task complexity and learner-related variables, including L2 proficiency levels and performance levels on task. It focused on task complexity in essay writing and measures of syntactic complexity, linguistic accuracy, and fluency (CAF). Analysis was based on the data from two separate studies the author conducted on this topic with undergraduate FL learners of Spanish in an American university at two distinct levels of language proficiency: advanced and intermediate. Findings indicated that task complexity in L2/FL writing as determined by familiarity of topic, genre, and/or task type, and reasoning demands seemed to have an impact on writing as a possible context for language learning, namely on CAF measures, in two ways: First, within given levels of language proficiency, results showed a tendency towards a trade-off effect among measures of linguistic production in writing affected by task complexity. Second, findings also suggest that the relationship between task complexity in L2/FL writing and the effect on attentional resources and CAF measures may be associated with the language proficiency level (Norris & Ortega, 2009)in conjunction with the level of expertise in writing of the learner. These findings shed further light on the connection between L2/FL writing and task-based language teaching (TBLT) ( Byrnes & Manchón, 2014). Limitations of the study as well as suggestions for future research are stated.

  


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:  The mass marketing of disordered eating and Eating Disorders: The social psychology of women, thinness and culture

عنوان فارسی مقاله: تبلیغ انبوه خوردن نامنظم و اختلالات غذایی: روانشناسی اجتماعی زنان، لاغری، و فرهنگ  

چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:

Synopsis

Contrasting the pervasive belief that Eating Disorders are primarily psychiatric in nature, we contend that they are also symptomatic of a social problem. Eating Disorders and disorderly eating are also culturally-induced diseases promoted partly by economic and social institutions that profit from the “cult of thinness” promoted by the mass media. There is a lucrative market associated with Eating Disorders, and the advertising, weight-loss, diet-food, fitness, and cosmetic surgery industries are well aware of it. Yet, not all women exposed to these influences via mass media go on to develop body dissatisfaction and Eating Disorders. To fully understand how specific women become exposed to and are impacted by the mass marketing of beauty ideals via the mass media, it is important to take a social psychological perspective on the problem. We explore four social psychological theories—cultivation theory, gratifications and uses theory, social comparison theory and objectification theory, which taken together, form a “nexus of influence” and provide important clues to our understanding of the pervasive influence and impact of these industries on the development of Eating Disorders in women. We also address potential solutions to the problem. We specifically discuss how to use empowerment education to integrate solutions including: a re-visioning of femininity, social activism, education, and media literacy.

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:  What about the children? arguments against lesbian and gay parenting

عنوان فارسی مقاله: بچه؟ استدلال هایی در زمینه والدین هم ج نس گرا

چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:

Abstract

In this article, I explore arguments commonly used to support the claim that lesbians and gay men should not be parents. Thematic analysis of recent media representations of lesbian and gay parenting and six focus groups with university students highlighted the repeated use of a number of arguments to oppose lesbian and gay parenting. I critically discuss the six most prevalent in this article. These are: (1) “The bible tells me that lesbian and gay parenting is a sin”; (2) “Lesbian and gay parenting is unnatural”; (3) “Lesbian and gay parents are selfish because they ignore ‘the best interests of the child’”; (4) “Children in lesbian and gay families lack appropriate role models”; (5) Children in lesbian and gay families grow up lesbian and gay; and (6) “Children in lesbian and gay families get bullied.” I examine these themes in relation to other debates about lesbian and gay and women's rights, and highlight the ways in which they reinforce a heterosexual norm.

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:  The learning styles and strategies of effective language learners

عنوان فارسی مقاله:  شیوه های یادگیری و استراتژی های موثر زبان آموزی

 کلمات کلیدی مقاله به فارسی:  کلمات کلیدی: شیوه های یادگیری، استراتژی های یادگیری، زبان آموزی موثر، زبان آموزی ناکارآمد، زبان سوم

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به انگلیسی: Learning styles; Learning strategies; Effective language learner; Less effective language learner; Tertiary

 چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:

Abstract

This paper presents the results of a comparative investigation into the learning styles and strategies of effective and ineffective language learners. Subjects for the study were one hundred and ten undergraduate university students in Hong Kong. They were categorized as ‘more effective’ or ‘less effective’ learners, on the basis of their scores on a standardized public English examination administered at the end of secondary school. Subjects completed an online questionnaire through which data were collected on their learning strategy preferences as well as patterns of language practice and use. The study revealed key differences in learning strategy preferences, learning styles and patterns of language use. Implications of the study are presented and discussed. 

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:  Foundations of Social Media Marketing

عنوان فارسی مقاله: اصول بازاریابی رسانه های اجتماعی

 کلمات کلیدی مقاله به فارسی:  کلمات کلیدی: بازایابی ایمیلی، رسانه های اجتماعی، وب 2.0، بازاریابی اینترنتی، استراتژی اینترنتی، بازاریابی آنلاین

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به انگلیسی: E-Marketing; Social Media; Web 2.0; Internet Marketing; Internet Strategy; Online Marketing

 چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:

Abstract

The Social Media have changed the power structures in the marketplace; evidence points to a major power migration taking place and to emergence of a new breed of powerful and sophisticated customer, difficult to influence, persuade and retain The paper outlines the nature, effects and present status of the Social Media, underlying their role as customer empowerment agents. It explains their aptitude and possible roles as part of the corporate Marketing strategy and identifies different ways of engaging them as marketing tools. The paper proposes two possible Social Media marketing strategies: a. The passive approach focusing on utilizing the Social Media domain as source of customer voice and market intelligence. b. The active approach i.e. engaging the Social Media as direct marketing and PR channels, as channels of customer influence, as tools of personalizing products and last but not least develop them as platforms of co-operation and customer-generated innovation. Finally the paper identifies future research directions around this new element of the marketing landscape

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:  Climate change-induced migration and violent conflict

عنوان فارسی مقاله: مهاجرت در اثر تغییرات جوی و درگیری های خشونت بار

 کلمات کلیدی مقاله به فارسی:  کلمات کلیدی: تغییرات جوی، مهاجرت، درگیری

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به انگلیسی: Climate change; Migration; Conflict

 چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:

Abstract

In a world of rising sea levels and melting glaciers, climate change is most likely occurring but with uncertain overall effects. I argue that we can predict the effects of climate change on migration by exploring the effects of environmental problems on migration in recent decades. People can adapt to these problems by staying in place and doing nothing, staying in place and mitigating the problems, or leaving the affected areas. The choice between these options will depend on the extent of problems and mitigation capabilities. People living in lesser developed countries may be more likely to leave affected areas, which may cause conflict in receiving areas. My findings support this theory, and suggest certain policy implications for climate change.

 

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:  Reward and punishment act as distinct factors in guiding behavior

عنوان فارسی مقاله: جایزه و پاداش: متغیرهای مستفاوت در هدایت رفتاری 

 کلمات کلیدی مقاله به فارسی:  کلمات کلیدی: رفتار کلامی (عامل)، قانون تاثیر، تقویت، تنبیه، بدست آوردن، از دست دادن

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به انگلیسی: Instrumental (operant) behavior; Law of effect; Reinforcement; Penalty; Gain; Loss 

چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:

Abstract

Behavior rests on the experience of reinforcement and punishment. It has been unclear whether reinforcement and punishment act as oppositely valenced components of a single behavioral factor, or whether these two kinds of outcomes play fundamentally distinct behavioral roles. To this end, we varied the magnitude of a reward or a penalty experienced following a choice using monetary tokens. The outcome of each trial was independent of the outcome of the previous trial, which enabled us to isolate and study the effect on behavior of each outcome magnitude in single trials. We found that a reward led to a repetition of the previous choice, whereas a penalty led to an avoidance of the previous choice. Surprisingly, the effects of the reward magnitude and the penalty magnitude revealed a pronounced asymmetry. The choice repetition effect of a reward scaled with the magnitude of the reward. In a marked contrast, the avoidance effect of a penalty was flat, not influenced by the magnitude of the penalty. These effects were mechanistically described using a reinforcement learning model after the model was updated to account for the penalty-based asymmetry. The asymmetry in the effects of the reward magnitude and the punishment magnitude was so striking that it is difficult to conceive that one factor is just a weighted or transformed form of the other factor. Instead, the data suggest that rewards and penalties are fundamentally distinct factors in governing behavior.

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:  Mobile banking adoption: A literature review

عنوان فارسی مقاله: پذیرش همرا بانک: بررسی تاریخچه

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به فارسی: بررسی تاریخچه، همراه بانک، بانکداری موبایلی، پذیرش همراه بانک، مدل پذیرش تکنولوژی

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به انگلیسی:  Literature review; Mobile banking; M-banking; Mobile banking adoption; Technology acceptance model

چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:

Abstract

Electronic commerce (e-commerce) continues to have a profound impact on the global business environment, but technologies and applications also have begun to focus more on mobile computing, the wireless Web, and mobile commerce. Against this backdrop, mobile banking (m-banking) has emerged as an important distribution channel, with considerable research devoted to its adoption. However, this research stream has lacked a clear roadmap or agenda. Therefore, the present article analyzes and synthesizes existing studies of m-banking adoption and maps the major theories that researchers have used to predict consumer intentions to adopt it. The findings indicate that the m-banking adoption literature is fragmented, though it commonly relies on the technology acceptance model and its modifications, revealing that compatibility (with lifestyle and device), perceived usefulness, and attitude are the most significant drivers of intentions to adopt m-banking services in developed and developing countries. Moreover, the extant literature appears limited by its narrow focus on SMS banking in developing countries; virtually no studies address the use of m-banking applications via smartphones or tablets or consider the consequences of such usage. This study makes several recommendations for continued research in the area of mobile banking.

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله: The effect of different types of corrective feedback on ESL student writing

عنوان فارسی مقاله: تاثیرانواع بازخوردهای اصلاحی بر نگارش دانش آموزان زبان دوم

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به فارسی:  کلمات کلیدی: بازخورد اصلاحی، نگارش دانش آموز، خطای زبانی

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به انگلیسی: Corrective feedback; Student writing; Linguistic error

چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:

Abstract

Debate about the value of providing corrective feedback on L2 writing has been prominent in recent years as a result of Truscott's [Truscott, J. (1996). The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning, 46, 327–369] claim that it is both ineffective and harmful and should therefore be abandoned. A growing body of empirical research is now investigating the agenda proposed by Ferris [Ferris, D.R. (1999). The case for grammar correction in L2 writing classes. A response to Truscott (1996). Journal of Second Language Writing, 8, 1–10, Ferris, D.R. (2004). The “Grammar Correction” debate in L2 writing: Where are we, and where do we go from here? (and what do we do in the meantime…?). Journal of Second Language Writing, 13, 49–62.]. Contributing to this research base, the study reported in this article investigated whether the type of feedback (direct, explicit written feedback and student–researcher 5 minute individual conferences; direct, explicit written feedback only; no corrective feedback) given to 53 adult migrant students on three types of error (prepositions, the past simple tense, and the definite article) resulted in improved accuracy in new pieces of writing over a 12 week period. The study found a significant effect for the combination of written and conference feedback on accuracy levels in the use of the past simple tense and the definite article in new pieces of writing but no overall effect on accuracy improvement for feedback types when the three error categories were considered as a single group. Significant variations in accuracy across the four pieces of writing support earlier SLA discoveries that L2 learners, in the process of acquiring new linguistic forms, may perform them with accuracy on one occasion but fail to do so on other similar occasions.

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:  The political ecology of war: natural resources and armed conflicts

 عنوان فارسی مقاله: اکولوژی سیاسی جنگ: منابع طبیعی و درگیری های مسلحانه

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به فارسی:  کلمات کلیدی: درگیری های مسلحانه، وابستگی، منابع طبیعی، اکولوژی سیاسی، جنگ

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به انگلیسی: Armed conflict; Dependence; Natural resources; Political ecology; War

چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:

Abstract

Throughout the 1990s, many armed groups have relied on revenues from natural resources such as oil, timber, or gems to substitute for dwindling Cold War sponsorship. Resources not only financed, but in some cases motivated conflicts, and shaped strategies of power based on the commercialisation of armed conflict and the territorialisation of sovereignty around valuable resource areas and trading networks. As such, armed conflict in the post-Cold War period is increasingly characterised by a specific political ecology closely linked to the geography and political economy of natural resources. This paper examines theories of relationships between resources and armed conflicts and the historical processes in which they are embedded. It stresses the vulnerability resulting from resource dependence, rather than conventional notions of scarcity or abundance, the risks of violence linked to the conflictuality of natural resource political economies, and the opportunities for armed insurgents resulting from the lootability of resources. Violence is expressed in the subjugation of the rights of people to determine the use of their environment and the brutal patterns of resource extraction and predation. Beyond demonstrating the economic agendas of belligerents, an analysis of the linkages between natural resources and armed conflicts suggests that the criminal character of their inclusion in international primary commodity markets responds to an exclusionary form of globalisation; with major implications for the promotion of peace.

 


عنوان انگلیسی مقاله:  Working memory and language: an overview

عنوان فارسی مقاله: زبان و حافظه فعال: بررسی تحقیقاتی

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به فارسی:  کلمات کلیدی: حافظه فعال، حلقه واجی، طرح ادراک بصری، اجرای مرکزی، تکرار ناکلمه

کلمات کلیدی مقاله به انگلیسی: Working memory; Phonological loop; Visuospatial sketchpad; Central executive; Nonword repetition; Specific language impairment

 چکیده مقاله به انگلیسی:

Abstract

Working memory involves the temporary storage and manipulation of information that is assumed to be necessary for a wide range of complex cognitive activities. In 1974, Baddeley and Hitch proposed that it could be divided into three subsystems, one concerned with verbal and acoustic information, the phonological loop, a second, the visuospatial sketchpad providing its visual equivalent, while both are dependent upon a third attentionally-limited control system, the central executive. A fourth subsystem, the episodic buffer, has recently been proposed. These are described in turn, with particular reference to implications for both the normal processing of language, and its potential disorders.